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A comprehensive overview of copper: everything you need to know

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What's copper?

Copper (chemical symbol Cu, atomic number 29, atomic weight 63.546 u) is a metallic element and also a transition element It is also a transition element. Pure copper is a soft metal with a reddish-orange surface with a metallic luster when it is freshly cut, and a purplish-red color in its monomers. The monomers are purplish-red in color. Copper has good ductility, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, so in the cable, electrical and electronic components is the most commonly used materials, can also be used as a building material, can be composed of many kinds of alloys. It is also used as a building material and can be formed into numerous alloys. In addition, copper is a durable metal that can be recycled many times without losing its mechanical properties. Copper is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Copper was one of the first metals used by humans and had a profound impact on the progress of early civilization. It was one of the first metals used by humans and had a profound impact on the progress of early civilization. In nature, copper exists mostly as a compound, known as copper ore. In nature, copper exists mostly in compounds, i.e., copper ores. Copper is weakly active, and iron monomers can be replaced with copper monomers by reacting with copper sulfate. The reaction between iron monomers and copper sulfate can displace copper monomers. Copper monomers are insoluble in non-oxidizing acids. The copper monomers are insoluble in non-oxidizing acids.


Types of Copper

Copper: also known as pure copper, the main varieties of oxygen-free copper, copper, phosphorus deoxygenation of copper, silver copper Copper is a rose-red metal, the surface is purple after the formation of copper oxide film. Copper is a rose-red metal, the surface of the formation of copper oxide film is purple, so the industrial pure copper is often called copper or electrolytic copper. The copper is very conductive, and a large amount of it is used as a substitute for the copper. Pure copper conductivity is very good, a large number of wires, cables, brushes, etc.; good thermal conductivity, often used to manufacture magnetic instruments, instruments, such as compasses, aviation instrumentation, etc.; plasticity is very good, easy to hot press and cold processing, can be made into tubes, rods, wires, bars, strips, strips, plates, foils, etc. collectively referred to as copper. The material is collectively known as copper.

Brass: is an alloy composed of copper and zinc, and can be subdivided into simple brass and complex brass, complex brass and the third group of elements in the title for nickel brass, silicon brass, etc. The higher the zinc content in brass, the better the zinc content. The higher the content of zinc in brass, the higher its strength and lower plasticity. The higher the zinc content in brass, the higher the strength and lower the plasticity.

Bronze: originally refers to the copper-tin alloy, because the color is greenish-gray, so it is called bronze. In order to improve the process performance and mechanical properties of the alloy, most of the bronze also add other alloying elements such as lead, zinc, phosphorus, etc. In order to improve the process performance and mechanical properties of the alloy, most of the bronze within the addition of other alloying elements, such as lead, zinc, phosphorus and so on. Bronze can be divided into tin bronze, tin bronze, tin bronze, tin bronze and tin bronze. Bronze can be divided into tin bronze and special bronze (i.e., Wuxi bronze) two categories. Bronze can be divided into tin bronze and special bronze (i.e. Wuxi bronze).

White Copper: Copper-based alloys with nickel as the main added element are silver-white in color and are called white copper. Copper alloy with nickel as the main added element is called white copper. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper, and the copper-nickel alloy with manganese, iron, zinc and aluminum is called complex white copper. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper.


Properties of Copper

Electrical Conductivity: Copper is the highest conductivity engineering metal Conductivity: Copper is the most conductive engineering metal. Silver or other elements can be added to copper to form copper alloys to increase strength, hardness or other properties without significantly affecting the conductivity. Conductivity.

Thermal conductivity: This property is similar to electrical conductivity, and copper alloys are often manufactured for thermal conductivity purposes, which results in a loss of conductivity but also in good corrosion resistance. The loss of conductivity results in good corrosion resistance.


Color and Appearance: Many copper alloys have distinctive color changes. . Whether in their natural form or after metal painting, many alloys are used as decorative materials for applications. color and appearance: Many copper alloys have distinctive color variations.

Corrosion resistance: All copper alloys are resistant to fresh water and steam corrosion. . Copper alloys are also resistant to corrosion in most field, marine and industrial environments. Corrosion Resistance: All copper alloys are resistant to freshwater and vapor corrosion.

Ductility: can be enhanced by annealing . Annealing can be done by a specialized annealing treatment, or it can be incidental to annealing by a welding or brazing process. Annealed: can be enhanced by an annealing process.

Hardening/Strengthening: There are four common ways to strengthen copper, including strain hardening, solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening and dispersion strengthening. .


Copper vs. aluminum and steel

Copper: Copper is a chemical element with high thermal and electrical conductivity and is commonly used in electrical wiring, plumbing and minting. . Copper is a red metal as well as a green metal because it has a low melting point and can be easily re-melted and re-smelted, making it fairly cheap to recycle. Copper is a red metal that is also a green metal. Copper is resistant to corrosion in underground environments, but slowly corrodes and darkens in humid air, forming a layer of copper oxide. Copper is resistant to corrosion in underground environments.


Aluminum: Aluminum is a silvery-white light metal that is ductile, and commodities are often made into rods, sheets, foils, powders, ribbons and wires. Aluminum. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are one of the most cost-effective and versatile materials available today. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are one of the most cost-effective and widely used materials. Aluminum is easier to corrode than copper, and aluminum has a higher resistivity than copper and a lower electrical conductivity than copper. Aluminum is easier to corrode than copper.

Steel: Steel is a metal alloy composed primarily of iron and carbon and is widely used in construction, manufacturing and transportation. 1 . Steel is stronger and more durable than copper . Steel rusts in moist air. .

The three main elements that need to be taken into account in the design and processing stages of using copper


  • For large areas of ground or power laying copper, it will play a shielding role, and some special ground, such as PGND play a protective role.

  • Generally, in order to ensure that the plating effect, or lamination is not deformed, for less wiring PCB board layer laying copper.

  • Signal integrity is required to give high frequency digital signals a complete return path and to reduce wiring in the DC network.


  • Pure copper is difficult to machine due to its high ductility, plasticity and toughness. Alloying copper improves its machinability and even makes copper alloys easier to machine than most other metallic materials.

  • Most machined copper parts are made from copper alloyed with zinc, tin, aluminum, silicon and/or nickel. These alloys require much less cutting force than machined steel or aluminum alloys of equal strength.


  • CNC milling and CNC turning are two common machining techniques. During the design phase, it is important to select the correct grade of copper for your application. For example, it is not only difficult but also uneconomical to use pure copper for fully machined parts. c101 (pure copper) has higher electrical conductivity due to its purity (99.99% copper) but is less machinable, whereas c110 is generally easier to machine and therefore more cost-effective.

Suitable for surface treatment of copper

Copper bright cleaning: the main copper surface stains, impurities, spots, oil and other dirt for thorough cleaning, restore the copper itself bright color. The main purpose is to clean the copper surface thoroughly and restore the bright color of copper.


Copper passivation: The role of passivation is mainly to prevent oxidation and resist corrosion. As copper is an active metal, it is particularly easy to oxidize and grow spots, or even patina, in humid or special environments. Therefore, copper passivation treatment is very necessary one of the processes Therefore, copper passivation is one of the very necessary processes.

Anodizing: Copper parts are used as anode to form oxide film on the surface by electrolysis method. The oxide film changes the surface state and performance, such as surface coloring, improving corrosion resistance, enhancing wear resistance and hardness, and protecting the surface of copper parts. The surface of copper parts is protected.

Electroplating: The purpose of electroplating is to change the surface properties or dimensions of a copper substrate by applying a metallic coating to it. Plating

Copper chemical polishing: already copper parts will be directly immersed in the copper polishing solution, so that it quickly achieve a bright as new beautiful color, while quickly removing surface oxides. The surface oxides are removed quickly.


Copper's industry applications

Power industry: power transmission such as wire and cable, transformers, switches, plug components and connectors, etc.; motor manufacturing such as stator, rotor, axle head and hollow conductor, etc.; communication cables and residential electrical wiring also requires the use of a large number of copper conductors. The use of copper conductors is also required for communication cables and residential electrical wiring.


Electronics industry: Electro-vacuum devices such as HF and UHF transmitter tubes, ferry tubes, magnetron tubes, etc., which require high purity oxygen-free copper and diffusion strengthened oxygen-free copper. Copper printed circuits require large amounts of copper foil and copper-based brazing materials. Copper is used in integrated circuits instead of aluminum in silicon chips for interconnects and lead frames. .

Energy and petrochemical industry: The main condenser plates and condenser tubes of thermal power plants in the energy industry are made of brass, bronze or white copper. Solar heaters are also often manufactured using copper tubes. Petrochemical industry copper and many copper alloys, a large number of contact with corrosive media used in the manufacture of a variety of containers, piping systems, filters, pumps and valves, a variety of evaporators, heat exchangers and condensers and so on. .

Transportation: In the marine industry copper alloys including aluminum bronze, manganese bronze, aluminum brass, gunmetal (tin-zinc bronze), white copper and nickel-copper alloys (monel alloy) belong to the standard materials for shipbuilding. In warships and merchant ships copper and copper alloys are generally used for aluminum-bronze screws, bolts, condenser tubes, rivets, copper-containing cladding paints, etc. In the automotive industry copper and copper alloys are mainly used for radiators, brake system piping, hydraulics, gears, bearings, power distribution and electrical systems, brake friction pads, gaskets, and a variety of joints, fittings, and trim. Railroad train motors, rectifiers and control, braking, electrical and signaling systems, etc. also rely on copper and copper alloys to work .

Mechanical and metallurgical industry: In addition to the large amount of copper used in mechanical engineering in electric motors, circuits, hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems and control systems, a variety of transmission parts and fixed parts, such as cylinder liners, connectors, fasteners, gears, twisted parts, etc., need to reduce wear and lubrication with copper or copper alloys. The copper or copper alloys are needed for wear reduction and lubrication.

Construction industry: Copper and copper alloys can be used to manufacture heat exchangers for air conditioners, watch movements, netting for paper machines, rollers, printing plates, fermentation tank liners, distillation pots, architectural decorative components and so on. The following are some examples of copper and copper alloys.


Emerging industries and high-tech fields: Copper is also used in emerging industries and high-tech fields, such as superconducting alloys, ultra-low-temperature media containers and pipelines, rocket engine cooling inner village, high-energy gas pedal magnet windings and so on. The copper is also used in new industries and high-tech fields.



Copper alloys are very versatile and can be used to make high-quality, customized parts for a wide range of industries. However, choosing the right material for your product is especially important, so contact ZONZE today about your injection molding design. We are ready to help you achieve better results.

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