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Classification and Application of Polishing Technology

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-04-09      Origin: Site


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What is Polishing?

Polishing is a processing method that reduces the roughness of the workpiece surface through mechanical, chemical, or electrochemical actions to obtain a bright, flat surface. Polishing does not improve the dimensional accuracy or geometrical accuracy of the workpiece but aims to achieve a smooth surface or mirror-like gloss. Sometimes, it is also used to eliminate gloss (matting).


Polishing usually uses a polishing wheel as the tool. The polishing wheel is generally made of multiple layers of canvas, felt, or leather, clamped with metal discs on both sides, and its rim is coated with a polishing agent uniformly mixed with fine abrasive powder and grease. During polishing, the high-speed rotating polishing wheel (circumferential speed of more than 20 meters/second) presses against the workpiece, causing the abrasive to roll and micro-cut the workpiece surface, thus obtaining a bright machined surface with surface roughness generally reaching Ra0.63~0.01 micrometers.

What are the Techniques of Polishing?

Mechanical Polishing: Mechanical polishing uses cutting or plastic deformation of the material surface to remove protruding parts on the workpiece surface to obtain a smooth surface, generally using oil stone strips, wool wheels, sandpaper, etc., mainly operated by hand.

Chemical Polishing: Chemical polishing allows the surface micro-protrusions of the material to dissolve preferentially in the chemical medium, achieving a smooth surface. This method can polish complex-shaped workpieces and polish many workpieces simultaneously, with high efficiency.

Electrolytic Polishing: The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, namely by selectively dissolving the tiny protrusions on the material surface to make it smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, it can eliminate the influence of cathode reactions and has better effects.

Ultrasonic Polishing: Ultrasonic polishing uses the ultrasonic vibration of the tool's cross-section to polish hard materials with abrasive suspensions. The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and subjected to ultrasonic oscillations to grind and polish the workpiece surface.

Fluid Polishing: Fluid polishing relies on flowing liquid and its carried abrasive particles to polish the workpiece surface.

Magnetic Grinding Polishing: Magnetic grinding polishing uses magnetic abrasives under the action of a magnetic field to form an abrasive brush for grinding the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, good quality, and easy-to-control processing conditions.

Electro-Spark Ultrasonic Compound Polishing: To improve the polishing speed of workpieces with surface roughness Ra above 1.6 μm, a combination of ultrasonics and a special high-frequency narrow pulse high peak current pulse source is used for compound polishing. The surface roughness is rapidly reduced by the simultaneous action of ultrasonic vibration and electrical pulses on the workpiece surface.

How to Evaluate the Cost of Polishing Processes

Process Arrangement: For key or complex parts, the provider should offer a preliminary process arrangement, detailed to each process and the time each process takes.


Equipment Costs: The machining cost can be calculated based on the hourly cost of the equipment required for each process.

Packaging and Transportation, Management Expenses, Tooling and Tools: By proportionally adding packaging and transportation, management expenses, tooling and tools, the total cost can be obtained.

Polishing Method: Determining whether grinding or polishing helps to know the most efficient and customer-purpose-suited processing method and to evaluate which way has the lowest cost.

Material Cost: The cost of mold mirror polishing processing depends on the company's investment in equipment, labor, and consumables.

Customer Needs: Thoroughly understanding customer needs helps judge process differences and costs, thereby designing the most suitable process.

Applications of Polishing Technology

Polishing technology has a wide range of applications in many fields. Here are some of the main application areas:


Manufacturing: Polishing technology is often used to enhance the appearance of products, prevent contamination of instruments, remove oxidation, create a reflective surface, or prevent corrosion in pipelines. For example, at ZONZE, we use these polishing technologies to serve customers, providing various solutions, and have been supplying precision machined parts, precision tungsten steel mold punches, nano-level automation rail parts, displacement stages, and cylinder bodies for dispensing machines, which require this polishing technology, and have always been well received by customers.

Metallurgy: In metallurgy, polishing is used to form flat, flawless surfaces for microscopic examination of metal microstructures.

Laser Polishing Technology: Compared with traditional polishing techniques, laser polishing technology more easily meets industrial requirements and is applicable to various materials such as metals, ceramics, glass, etc., attracting widespread attention from scholars both domestically and internationally.

Automotive Polishing: Polishing is often used to remove the oxidized layer on the paint surface, shallow scratches, and the loss of gloss due to oxidation, addressing issues affecting the appearance of the paint surface.

Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP): The equipment and consumables used in CMP technology include polishing machines, polishing slurries, polishing pads, post-CMP cleaning equipment, polishing endpoint detection and process control equipment, waste treatment, and testing equipment.


Ensuring a high level of polishing technology in today's manufacturing is quite challenging, and therefore the operation of polishing technology needs the best methods to produce the required smoothness on manufactured parts.

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