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Analysis of The Effect of Mechanical Processing on Part Precision

Views: 50     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-04-03      Origin: Site


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In recent years, various advanced technologies and high-tech equipment have emerged. Take the machinery manufacturing industry as an example, the application of new equipment and new technologies in mechanical processing has greatly improved production efficiency. However, due to the existence of errors in the mechanical processing process, it is difficult to guarantee the quality of products, especially in the precision of part processing, which is the most obvious and prominent. This seriously hinders the improvement of enterprise manufacturing level. In view of this, this article will analyze the influence of mechanical processing technology on precision in part processing, and propose effective control measures.

1. Factors Affecting Part Precision in Mechanical Processing Technology.

1.1 Mechanical Structural Error


In modern mechanical processing, mechanical equipment occupies an important position. This is because the quality and performance of mechanical equipment have a direct impact on the precision and quality of actual processing. If the design and production of mechanical equipment are unreasonable and the parameters cannot meet the relevant standard requirements, it will lead to certain defects in the equipment itself. Such defective equipment will inevitably produce errors in the parts processed after being put into use. The cutting tools, fixtures, machine tools, and other processing equipment that are not properly installed before processing parts can also cause errors, which are called net errors. This situation will reduce the accuracy of the parts and make it difficult to meet the requirements of the drawing. For example, different cutting tools and fixtures need to be selected according to the different materials of the parts in mechanical processing. Different cutting tools have different angles, materials, sharpness, and sizes, which will inevitably affect the accuracy of the parts. For example, turning tools, boring tools, and planing tools have little effect on the accuracy, but cutting tools with clear size standards such as pull knives and slot milling cutters, if their size and shape do not match the parts to be processed, will inevitably affect the size and shape accuracy of the parts. Forming turning tools and milling cutters will affect the geometric accuracy of the part surface. In addition, the main spindle of the machine tool has a direct connection with the rotation accuracy of the spindle and the position of the cutting tool and parts. In theory, the rotation axis of the main spindle is basically fixed. However, under certain thermal effects, its position will change, thereby affecting the spindle deflection, journal roundness, and rotation error.

1.2 Numerical control programming error.

With the continuous innovation of science and technology, more and more advanced technologies are being applied in the field of mechanical machining. In order to operate normally and stably, reasonable control is often required through numerical control programming. In other words, the speed and performance of mechanical machining are largely determined by numerical control programming. This means that if there are errors in the numerical control programming, the accuracy of part machining will be affected accordingly. Therefore, in order to avoid such situations, relevant technicians need to fully understand the characteristics and specific uses of the parts, and on this basis, make reasonable settings for the relevant data, and choose and adjust the programming origin properly, so as to ensure that the produced parts can meet quality requirements.

1.3 Force deformation


In general, when machining parts, various equipment and tools need to work together to complete the machining process. However, during this process, residual stress and external forces from machining may act on the parts. The external forces refer to the forces acting on the parts from outside, such as those from the self-tool holder, external circular turning tool, and so on. If the force is insufficient, the parts may be deformed or damaged, which will lead to an increase in error. Similarly, excessive external forces from the cutting tools or machine tools can also cause deformation of the parts. As for residual stress, the parts themselves will generate stress during the machining process, which will affect the machining of the parts. In this case, after rough machining, the formed blanks should be allowed to rest for a certain period of time before finishing, which can eliminate the residual stress inside the blanks.

1.4 Temperature error

During the process of machining parts, different equipment and components will move in mutual motion and generate significant frictional forces. Under the effect of frictional forces, heat will be generated on the equipment or components. If this heat cannot be reasonably controlled during actual machining, it may cause the parts to deform, thereby affecting the accuracy of machining. In addition to components and equipment, machine tools that work for a long time will inevitably generate heat, leading to an overall increase in temperature. This is an objective problem that cannot be completely solved if the lathe is to continue working. For cutting temperature, different parts have different heat transfers during cutting. Generally speaking, turning cuts transfer 10% of the cutting heat to the part, milling and planing transfer 30% of the cutting heat to the part, and drilling, due to poor heat dissipation conditions, coupled with the frictional accumulation of the cross blade and chip groove, transfers 50% of the cutting heat to the part. Moreover, the higher the cutting speed, the faster the temperature will rise, further exacerbating the machining error of the parts.

2. Measures for controlling the effect of machining process on machining accuracy of parts.

 2.1 Standardize process flow

In the process of machining parts, it is necessary for the operators to strictly follow the standardized process flow. The reason for this is that any problems occurring in any process of the machining will affect the precision and quality of the parts. Only by strictly following the process can errors be avoided, and the precision of the parts can be ensured. Therefore, as operators, it is necessary to supervise and manage the entire process of part machining to ensure its rationality and process standardization.

In practical implementation, it is necessary to choose high-performance machining equipment, such as machines from reputable brands or those with strong production capabilities, to provide powerful equipment support for part machining. At the same time, it is necessary to check the installation sequence and necessary components of the equipment before putting it into use. After completing the installation, the machine should be calibrated to ensure that the part machining process can proceed in an orderly manner.

Furthermore, regular inspection and maintenance of the machining equipment should be carried out by professional personnel to ensure that the equipment can operate normally and meet the requirements of part machining. Corresponding management systems should be established to regulate the quality of the part machining process. Regular sampling and testing should be carried out to ensure that it meets relevant national standards.

 2.2 Control CNC programming

As can be seen from the above, the machining accuracy of parts is largely affected by CNC programming. In order to effectively control this influencing factor, as technicians, when programming, they should reasonably locate the programming origin based on the characteristics and specific use of the part. When determining the programming coordinate system, the principle of unifying programming, design, and process benchmarks should be strictly followed in order to minimize the error in converted dimensions. Specifically, we can start from the following aspects: First, we should ensure that the CNC programming origin highly matches the part design drawings. This is because part design has a unique design benchmark, and machining enterprises have process benchmarks.


Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the origin positioning conforms to the above benchmarks, in order to effectively reduce part processing errors; Secondly, data calculation should be simplified as much as possible to avoid increasing the occurrence rate of errors due to overly cumbersome calculation processes; Thirdly, the construction of CNC programming coordinate systems should be carried out on surfaces with high accuracy; Fourth, if there are situations where the position of parts is different and the dimensional tolerance is asymmetric, relevant technical personnel are required to manually measure and calculate the data programming dimensions. If you choose the same type of tool to process parts, you should select tolerance median programming to leave a certain amount of adjustment space for errors, so that the processing accuracy can be fully guaranteed.

 2.3 Processing structural errors

The level of product quality is closely related to the processing accuracy of parts. In particular, some machines have strict requirements for the accuracy of parts, and geometric dimensions, as the main factor affecting the accuracy of parts in processing, should be given necessary attention and strengthened control. Specifically, we can start from two aspects: on the one hand, we can control the original error. You should know that in machining, there are often some objective errors that cannot be avoided. This is because there must be errors in machining parts and CNC machines, and this error is commonly referred to as the original error. As relevant technical personnel, it is necessary to analyze and explore the causes of their errors, and take effective measures to actively respond and properly solve them, in order to promote the improvement of part accuracy. In addition, in the actual processing process, it is necessary to reasonably adjust the position accuracy and geometric accuracy of the machine tool. On the other hand, reasonably design the core components of the machine tool. It is important to know that the positioning accuracy of machine tools greatly affects the processing of parts. For example, core components such as the feed system, guide rails, and the levelness and perpendicularity of the worktable. Therefore, workers need to reasonably select the core components of the machine tool, taking full consideration of the characteristics and accuracy requirements of the parts. For example, as the main component of a machine tool, the ball screw should be selected with emphasis on its accuracy, selecting advanced and mature technology, and utilizing axial load and rotational speed to reasonably select the fixing and supporting methods of the ball screw.

 2.4 Reduce the impact of external forces


In the processing of parts, the accuracy of parts is often affected by the force. As the main force, friction has a high degree of control difficulty. In order to eliminate this force as much as possible, the following measures need to be adopted: First, incorporate the part processing technology into the design standards to achieve force cancellation and prevent the accuracy from being affected due to excessive friction. Secondly, strengthen the repair and maintenance of mechanical equipment to prevent the surface from becoming rough and the friction force from further increasing due to long-term application of the equipment. In this case, it is necessary to frequently polish the mechanical equipment and replace the cutting tools in a timely manner to effectively reduce friction and improve processing accuracy. Third, formulate error compensation measures. In the processing of parts, errors inevitably occur. In view of this, it is necessary to formulate corresponding compensation measures, which can compensate or fill in the errors by adding materials, in order to reasonably eliminate the existing errors.

 2.5 Control process temperature

Thermal deformation of parts can also lead to errors in the processing process. In this regard, it is necessary to start from the following aspects: First, control the overall processing temperature at a lower level through forced cooling; Secondly, the coolant in the cutting area should be sufficient to balance the temperature difference; Third, eliminate unnecessary heat sources, and take isolation measures for heat sources that cannot be eliminated; Fourth, reasonably select machine tool components. On the basis of making full use of the principle of thermal symmetry, the layout and installation of the gearbox are carried out to ensure temperature uniformity.

3. Sum up

Overall, many factors can affect the machining accuracy of parts during the part processing. If these factors are not controlled, they can seriously affect product quality. As a manufacturing enterprise, ZONZE attaches great importance to these influencing factors and has taken measures such as standardizing the process flow, controlling CNC programming, and handling structural errors to greatly improve the accuracy of part machining. If you have any requirements for precision machining, please do not hesitate to contact ZONZE immediately. Based on more than 20 years of experience, they will provide you with free advice.

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