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Design Tips for Die Casting

Views: 50     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-05-08      Origin: Site


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Die casting involves injecting molten metal into a mold at high pressure, enabling the production of intricately shaped parts that are challenging or impossible to create through conventional machining methods. Thus, the significance of meticulous design cannot be overstated in die casting endeavors.

Die Casting Parts-1

Achieving flawless die cast parts entails careful consideration of various factors including die design, choice of metal, manufacturing process, and intended application of the final product. Essentially, it's about orchestrating every aspect to craft a functional, robust, and visually appealing component.

For optimal results in die casting, designers should adhere to fundamental guidelines.

Major considerations for die casting design

While crafting an impeccable die cast might appear formidable, the gratification of witnessing your conceptualization materialize into an attractive and functional end product is unparalleled. Here are key considerations to bear in mind throughout the design phase:

Various metals, including aluminum and zinc, can be utilized in the die casting process, each boasting distinct properties like fluidity and solidification kinetics, necessitating thoughtful integration into the design.

The die must endure the process's high pressures and undergo precise machining to ensure the production of accurate final components.

Account for the intricacies of the production process when designing die castings, possibly incorporating provisions for cores or inserts.

Die Casting Parts-2

Facilitate easy ejection of the part from the die without compromising surface integrity or leaving residual flash.

Prioritize the part's functionality and intended usage when conceptualizing die castings; designs for high-stress applications will diverge from those primarily focused on aesthetics.

Top design tips for die casting – Important variables

When embarking on the design process for your die casting, several critical variables necessitate consideration. These encompass:

1. Fillets and radii

In die casting, optimizing fillets and radii stands as a pivotal design guideline. These elements facilitate seamless surface transitions and mitigate stress concentrations, thereby bolstering the strength, visual appeal, and longevity of the end product.

The dimensions and contours of fillets and radii hinge upon the specific application but should not fall below 1 mm. Ill-suited fillets and radii can compromise component strength by altering its cross-sectional area. Hence, consider the following design pointers concerning fillets and radii:

Steer clear of sharp corners to avert stress concentrations.

Employ larger radii for areas subject to higher loads.

Mind the radius at the intersection of two surfaces, as it significantly impacts joint strength.

Maintain consistent fillet and radius dimensions across the design to uphold component strength and surface smoothness.

Incorporate draft angles on surfaces aligned with the mold opening direction to facilitate damage-free component removal. Typically ranging from 1 to 3 degrees, draft angles may increase for intricate shapes.

2. Wall thickness

When designing, the wall thickness must be carefully considered to achieve the desired strength, stiffness, and weight for the final product. It influences various aspects, such as cooling time during casting and the pressure tolerable by the mold.

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The optimal wall thickness is contingent upon several factors, including part size, shape, material composition, and manufacturing technique.

Outlined below are minimum wall thickness ranges for both large and small castings:

Aluminum: 1.016 – 2.032 mm

Zinc: 0.381 – 0.889 mm

Magnesium: 1.016 – 2.54 mm

3. Ribs and external corners

In die casting design, ribs serve to fortify component walls, enhancing stiffness and ensuring even load distribution to prevent warping. Simultaneously, external corners facilitate sharp transitions between surfaces, necessitating careful consideration.

The dimensions of ribs and external corners are contingent upon the specific application; thicker ribs may be requisite for components exposed to significant stress.

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Key design considerations concerning ribs and external corners include:

Begin by adding ribs to the thinnest wall to avert component thinning.

Maintain uniform spacing between ribs and minimize external corners whenever possible to mitigate stress concentrations.

When external corners are unavoidable, prioritize a larger radius to diminish stress levels.

4. Windows and holes

In die casting design, windows and holes are frequently incorporated to facilitate fluid passage or establish connection points between components. Their integration demands careful consideration to preserve the strength and integrity of the final product.

Windows typically reside on the mold's top or side, usually adopting a rectangular configuration. Conversely, holes can be positioned anywhere on the mold and vary in shape, such as round or square.

When designing windows and holes, prioritize the following:

Ensure rounded or filleted edges for holes and windows.

Position holes and windows away from sharp corners and edges.

Consider higher draft angles for windows and holes situated on the mold's side.

Acknowledge that in certain scenarios, post-machining of holes and windows may be necessary, albeit extending production time and costs.

5. Post machine features

Certain features, such as threads or undercuts, necessitate creation after casting through post-machining, an additional step in the manufacturing process. It's crucial to be mindful of this as it extends lead time and increases part cost.

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If post-machining becomes imperative, consider the following:

Strategically position the feature to minimize material removal.

Design the feature for ease and precision during machining.

Set realistic and achievable tolerances for the feature.

To contain costs, minimize post-machined features in die casting designs.

Alternatively, post-machined features can be integrated during the design phase using cores, internal features within the mold for creating holes, pockets, or other desired features in the final casting.

6. Parting lines

The parting line, where the two halves of the mold meet, typically resides on the side or top of the component and demands consideration in die casting design due to its potential impact on the final product's appearance.

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Considerations for designing the parting line include:

Opt for a location that minimizes visibility of the parting line.

Ensure appropriate thickness to prevent issues such as shattering or surface imperfections.

Be prepared for flash formation along the parting line, which can be addressed during post-processing.

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